Acne is a condition where the follicles in the skin become clogged, forming spots, white heads, blackheads and sometimes cysts. An increase in sebaceous activity causes excess oil production which mixes with dead skin cells and form a plug in the follicle. If the plugged follicle lies close to the surface of the skin it can create whiteheads and blackheads. If bacteria on the skin contaminates and infects the plugged follicle, it can cause papules, pustules, nodules or cysts.
There are a range of causes, including: hormones, certain skincare products, genetics, stress, and diet.
There are also different severities of acne:
Grade 1 is mild. Mostly whiteheads and blackheads with minimal breakouts.
Grade 2 is moderate. Mostly papules and pustules with mild inflammation on certain areas of the skin.
Grade 3 is severe. Significant breakouts on the skin comprising of pustules, papules, nodules or cysts. Scarring, significant inflammation and redness are likely.
Acne scarring is the result of inflammation from acne breakouts which damage the skin. The body’s response to this is to heal the blemishes which stimulate collagen production. If too much collagen is produced it can cause visible scarring. Scarring can also arise from picking the spots.
There are 3 types of acne scarring:
Rolling scars – these vary in depth and make the skin appear uneven and wavy.
Ice pick scars – these are very small, narrow indentations which give a pitted/punctured appearance to the surface of the skin.
Boxcar scars – these are round or oval craters in the skin, defined by their sharp edges.
The décolletage area refers to the upper torso of a woman, encompassing the neck, shoulders, and chest. This region is prone to developing fine lines and wrinkles, making it one of the first areas to show signs of ageing.
During menopause, oestrogen deficiency and hormonal changes accelerate the breakdown of collagen and elastin, resulting in thinner, drier skin and an increase in wrinkles. Additionally, a decrease in skin elasticity leads to the appearance of vertical creases on the décolletage. Sun exposure further exacerbates ageing, causing sun spots and other visible signs of skin damage.
Fortunately, non-surgical cosmetic treatments commonly used on the face can also restore a youthful appearance to the décolletage. At Rejuvenation Rooms, we offer various such treatments.
Ageing of the hands is a natural process that occurs as we grow older. The skin on our hands thins out, and the underlying structures, such as veins and tendons, become more prominent, resulting in a bony and veiny appearance. The hands also lose their plumpness due to a decrease in collagen production, making wrinkles and fine lines more visible.
Other factors that contribute to ageing hands include exposure to UV radiation, which causes skin damage and pigmentation, and repeated hand washing or exposure to chemicals, which can lead to dryness, redness, and irritation.
Fortunately, at Rejuvenation Rooms we offer non-invasive cosmetic treatments such as Profhilo, microneedling and skin peels to help rejuvenate the appearance of ageing hands. Additionally, regular moisturising and protecting your hands from the sun by wearing gloves and using sunscreen can help prevent further damage and keep your hands looking youthful.
Cellulite is a common condition that affects many people, especially women. It is characterised by the appearance of dimpled or lumpy skin, often around the thighs, buttocks, and hips. While it is not a serious medical condition, cellulite can be a source of embarrassment or self-consciousness for those who experience it.
Cellulite occurs when fat cells accumulate beneath the skin and push up against the connective tissue, causing a puckering or dimpling effect. Hormonal factors, genetics, and lifestyle habits such as poor diet, lack of exercise, and smoking can all contribute to the development of cellulite.
Despite the common misconception that cellulite is only present in people who are overweight, it can also occur in individuals who are otherwise thin and healthy. In fact, up to 90% of women may experience some degree of cellulite at some point in their lives.
The treatment of cellulite is complex, and there is no definitive cure for the condition. A combination of lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet as well as undergoing non-invasive treatments, may help to manage its appearance and improve patient satisfaction.
Congested skin isn’t just one thing; it is the summation of a lot of things. Congestion is the build up of sebum, impurities, dead skin cells and sweat in the pores. When this debris builds up it can often become trapped, leading to blackheads, whiteheads, breakouts, enlarged pores and an uneven, dull skin texture.
Congested skin can arise from an unhealthy diet, hormonal fluctuations, a poor skincare routine. It can also be triggered by using incorrect skincare products that does not suit your skin or contain comedogenic ingredients (pore-clogging ingredients)
Wrinkles that appear at the outer corner of the eyes are often referred to as ‘crows feet’ or ‘smile lines’, and they tend to form as a result of repetitive smiling, laughing and squinting. Other influencing factors can include sun exposure, smoking, genetics and poor skincare.
As we age, levels of collagen (which keeps skin supple and firm) and elastin (which helps skin ‘bounce back’ after making facial expressions) slowly depletes, reducing the skins’ elasticity, allowing fine lines to be formed, and over time, become etched in.
These expression lines are often one of the first signs of ageing due to the skin around the eye being that much more delicate than that on the rest of the face. Eye skin also lacks sebaceous glands, which produce sebum, or what we think of as ‘oil’. This acts as a lubricant to the skin, so areas without sebaceous glands and sebum are more prone to dryness. Hence, fine lines and wrinkles appear more noticeable on dry and dehydrated skin.
Dehydrated skin is a common condition where your outer most layer of the skin is lacking in water and moisture. Everyones complexions are susceptible to dehydration regardless of their skin type, however it is not to be confused with dry skin. Dry skin occurs due to a lack of sebum (oil) production caused by a decline in sebaceous activity. Dehydrated skin will feel tight and look dull, dry skin will often be flaky and feel itchy.
Dehydrated skin is a temporary condition and can usually be resolved by introducing a couple of key ingredients such as ceramides and hyaluronic acid. Ceramides are lipids (fat molecules) that help the skin retain moisture and allow for proper function. and hyaluronic acid helps water bind to the collagen in your skin, keeping it the skin cells hydrated and plump.
Dull skin essentially refers to a lack of radiance in the skin where it typically loses the ability to reflect light effectively, due to the build up of dead skin cells on the surface. Dull skin can appear dry, lacklustre, ashy and uneven.
Skin is made up of three layers, the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, all three of which vary significantly in their anatomy and function. The epidermis constantly renews itself, with the new cells being made in the lower layers of the epidermis. These move to the surface within four weeks, with the dead skin cells falling away naturally as tiny flakes of skin, or they are removed by skincare activities such as washing and exfoliation. This process keeps the skin smooth, creating an environment for light to reflect more easily and evenly. If the skin is dry and covered with dead skin cells, the light scatters instead of being reflected, leaving it with a dull appearance
Dull skin can also be caused by ageing – as collagen is poorly renewed and the pace of cell renewal decreases as we get older, thus making the glowing effect on skin harder to achieve.
Not getting enough sleep also has an impact by reducing the ability of the skin barrier to hydrate itself and produce collagen, leading to dull skin.
Over exposure to the sun can also dull then skin by drying it out and depleting its levels of essential fatty acids, leaving skin looking and feeling dry, flaky and rough. Sun damage also slows down the rate of skin cell renewal, causing a build-up of old, dead skin cells that result in dull, congested skin.
By ensuring the stratum corneum (skins uppermost layer) is adequately moisturised and relatively free of dead skin cells, it appears more translucent and reflects light more evenly, leaving skin to glow.
Pores are necessary for maintaining healthy skin, as they allow oil and sweat to reach the skins surface. However, for some, the pores can appear enlarged, particularly in the T-zone on the face (forehead, nose and chin).
Enlarged pores are often caused by excess sebum production, large hair follicles, acne, loss of skin elasticity as we age, and certain comedogenic skincare products. When oil collects in the pore and combines with dead skin cells, it can become blocked, making it look bigger.
Unfortunately you can’t physically eradicate enlarged pores but you can minimise the appearance of them by using non-comedogenic make up and skincare products, lightly exfoliating the skin, having monthly facials which include extractions and wearing a sunscreen everyday.
Eye bags are puffiness or swelling that appears under the eyes, giving the appearance of bulging bags. They are a common cosmetic concern and can make a person look tired or older than their actual age. Eye bags can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, ageing, lack of sleep, stress, allergies, and dehydration. In some cases, medical conditions such as thyroid problems or fluid retention can also contribute to the development of eye bags.
As we age, the fatty tissue in our upper cheeks breaks down unevenly, resulting in protruding bulges under the eye. In addition, the orbital septum, a thin membrane that holds fat under the eye, weakens as we age, allowing the fat behind it to sag and press against the skin, contributing to or causing bags under the eyes.
Smoking and alcohol consumption can both dehydrate the skin and break down collagen and elastin, which weakens the delicate skin under the eyes. Meanwhile, sleep deprivation can cause blood vessels under the eyes to dilate, making dark circles appear even worse.
Eye bags are generally not a medical concern, but many people seek to improve their appearance by reducing their prominence through surgical and non-surgical cosmetic treatments.
At Rejuvenation Rooms, we offer non-surgical treatment to help reduce the appearance of eye bags.
Hyperhidrosis is a condition that causes abnormally excessive sweating that hasn’t necessarily been triggered by physical activity or a rise in temperature.
The most common form of hyperhidrosis is called primary focal hyperhidrosis, and affects the water-producing ‘eccrine’ sweat glands. With this type, the nerves responsible for signalling your sweat glands become overactive, thus resulting in heavy sweating, commonly affecting the armpits, hands, feet and scalp.
Besides disrupting normal daily activities, controlling symptoms can be a constant challenge. This type of heavy sweating can cause social anxiety and embarrassment, and cause people to avoid certain work or social situations, as well as avoiding wearing certain coloured clothing or fabrics.
Secondary hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that happens due to another medical condition such as diabetes, menopause, thyroid disorders, and certain medications.
As we age, we begin to lose collagen, elastin, subcutaneous fat stores, and boney tissue in our face. This inevitable volume loss is mainly noticeable in the cheeks, under the eyes, temples and the chin, resulting in a loss of facial structure and contour.
When this occurs, the skin isn’t adequately supported, resulting in laxity, deeper skin folds and a sagging appearance to the skin. This often causes the face to look drawn and sunken making it appear more sad or tired, and less youthful.
Environmental factors, genetics and lifestyle choices such as diet, sun exposure and smoking can impact on how and when you lose facial volume, sometimes resulting in premature ageing.
The appearance of fine lines on the surface of the skin usually indicates the beginning of the ageing process. These lines become more pronounced as we get older due to diminishing levels of collagen and elastin production in the skin, a loss of moisture, and the supporting fatty tissue from the deeper layers of the skin starting to naturally breakdown.
Over time these fine lines mature into wrinkles as the ageing process goes on, and with repetitive muscle contractions day in day out, expressions such as smiling, frowning and raising our eyebrows for example, causes these lines to deepen and become more permanent.
Environmental and lifestyle factors such as exposure to the sun, smoking, alcohol consumption and pollution can all play a part in reducing the skins integrity and bring about an acceleration in the ageing process due to triggering the destruction of collagen and elastin.
Forehead lines are the horizontal indentations that appear across the forehead when we activate the frontalis muscle as we pull certain facial expressions such as raising our eyebrows.
As we age, skin gradually becomes looser as it loses stores of collagen, elastin and subcutaneous fatty tissue, which keeps our skin firm and taut.
Therefore as we repeat these movements countless times a day, everyday, these lines become deeper and more obvious as skin integrity weakens. This eventually leads to permanent lines remaining present, even when expression is not being made.
Exposure to the sun, genetics and smoking can also accelerate and exaggerate this condition.
Frown lines are the indentations in the skin that usually resemble the number 11, which develop between the eyebrows. They are usually caused by repetitive frowning or squinting, and even though these lines usually appear with age, they can also be experienced by younger people.
Over time these expression lines become more pronounced as the skin loses its ability to bounce back, due to decreasing levels of collagen and elastin as we age. These are the proteins responsible for maintaining the skins elasticity.
Although these lines do not pose any risk to health they can be associated with a permanently angry or concerned appearance. This can lead to feelings of self consciousness and a lack of confidence in both men and women.
A gummy smile is a term used to describe a smile where a significant amount of the gum tissue is visible above the upper teeth when a person smiles. Typically, when a person smiles, only a small amount of gum tissue is visible, and the focus is on the teeth. However, in some cases, the upper lip rises too high, exposing more of the gum tissue than is considered aesthetically pleasing.
A gummy smile can occur due to a variety of factors, including genetics, abnormal tooth eruption, an overgrowth of the gum tissue, or an overactive muscle that controls the upper lip’s movement. While a gummy smile is not considered a medical condition, it can have a significant impact on a person’s self-esteem and confidence. Fortunately, there are several treatments available, including Botulinum toxin injections and gum contouring, that can help reduce the appearance of a gummy smile and improve a person’s smile’s overall aesthetic.
At Rejuvenation Rooms, we use Botox, which is a neurotoxin that is commonly used to treat a gummy smile. When a person smiles, the muscles around their mouth contract, pulling their lips up and exposing their teeth. However, in some cases, the muscles responsible for this movement are overactive, causing the upper lip to rise too high and exposing more of the gum tissue than desired.
To treat a gummy smile, Botox is injected into the overactive muscles that control the upper lip’s movement. Botox works by blocking the nerve impulses that cause these muscles to contract, reducing their activity and limiting the amount of gum tissue that is exposed when a person smiles. Dermal fillers can also be used to help address a gummy smile by adding volume to the upper lip, which can help to cover the excess gum tissue and reduce the visibility of the gums when a person smiles. By adding filler to the upper lip, the lip is plumped up, which results in a reduction of the amount of gum tissue that is visible.
Hyperpigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in colour than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin colour, forms deposits in the skin. Hyperpigmentation can affect any skin colour.
Age or “liver” spots are a common form of hyperpigmentation which occur due to sun damage. These small, darkened patches are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun.
Melasma or chloasma spots are similar in appearance to age spots but are larger areas of darkened skin that appear most often as a result of hormonal changes. Pregnancy, for example, can trigger overproduction of melanin that causes the “mask of pregnancy” on the face and darkened skin on the abdomen and other areas.
Freckles are small brown spots that can appear anywhere on the body, but are most common on the face and arms. Freckles are an inherited characteristic.
Freckles, age spots, and other darkened skin patches can become darker or more pronounced when skin is exposed to the sun. This happens because melanin absorbs the energy of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays in order to protect the skin from overexposure.
Ingrown hairs cause red, itchy, irritated bumps on the skin when the hair has become trapped and curled back in on itself or grows sideways into the skin. The condition can often result in an infection in the hair follicles, causing painful, pus filled spots.
Ingrown hairs are more likely to occur if the hair is coarse or curly. It is more commonly seen in areas which require frequent shaving or waxing such as the face and neck, underarms, bikini area, legs, back and chest.
In order to prevent ingrown hair from occurring, it is best to stop shaving and waxing. For this reason, laser hair removal is a favoured alternative to put a stop to this troublesome condition.
Jowls are characterised by the sagging skin and soft tissues that hang below the jawline on either side of the face. This condition arises from the loss of skin and muscle elasticity, leading to a drooping appearance and contributing to an aged and tired facial aesthetic. While the progression of jowling is commonly attributed to the ageing process, it can also result from factors such as sun damage, genetic predisposition, and fluctuations in weight.
Various cosmetic interventions are available to address jowls, including both surgical and non-surgical options. Non-surgical treatments such as injectables and energy-based devices can replenish volume loss to the mid face, stimulate collagen production and tighten skin, while surgical approaches like facelifts and neck lifts can reposition the underlying tissues and remove excess skin. Additionally, preventative measures, such as sun protection and weight management, may mitigate the development of jowls over time.
Nose to mouth lines (also known as nasolabial folds or smile lines) are the deep creases that run from both sides of the nose, down to the corners of the mouth. Having these lines is very normal and everybody has them, but their severity can vary. Many factors contribute to their development, with ageing being the main cause. With depleting levels of collagen, elastin, and subcutaneous fat in the cheek area, the skin gradually loses its structural support, and therefore starts to sag downwards creating deeper creases and darker shadows, making the nasolabial folds more noticeable.
Other factors such as exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, sun exposure causing free radical damage and rapid weight loss or weight fluctuation can make these lines deepen. Because our faces are also so expressive, facial movements such as repetitive smiling and talking, may play a part in these lines appearing deeper from a younger age.
Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs when an injury or trauma to the skin heals and leaves an area of discolouration behind. The skin cells react to the damage or irritation by making extra melanin (the brown pigment that produces normal skin colour). It is usually caused by acne, breakouts and individuals who pick their skin, it can also be present after surgery. It can appear pink, red, purple or brown depending on the individual’s skin tone.
Rosacea is a common skin condition which typically affects the face.
The main symptoms include a persistent redness in areas on the face which looks like sunburn, flushing or a rash. Visible blood vessels, papules and pustules and thickened skin can also be experienced.
The exact cause of rosacea is unknown, there are however many triggers for the condition which include stress, hormonal changes, diet, hot or cold weather, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to sunlight and exercise.
A saggy neck is a term used to describe a condition where the skin around the neck becomes loose, creased, or wrinkled, and begins to sag. This condition is also known as a “”turkey neck”” due to its resemblance to the wattle of a turkey.
The sagging of the neck skin is often caused by ageing, weight loss, or genetics. As a person ages, the skin on the neck becomes thinner and loses elasticity, causing it to droop and sag.
Other factors that can contribute to a saggy neck include excessive sun exposure, smoking, and poor nutrition. These factors can also accelerate the ageing process and cause the skin to lose its elasticity, making it more prone to sagging.
A saggy neck can be a source of cosmetic concern for many people, and may make a person feel self-conscious about their appearance. While there are various cosmetic treatments to combat this issue, like neck lift surgery and liposuction, it’s worth noting that not everyone prefers to opt for surgical methods. Although not delivering surgical results, non-invasive options such as Profhilo, Botox, and HIFU, can still be effective in tightening and firming the skin around the neck.
Skin tags are small, harmless growths that protrude from the skin’s surface. They are soft and typically range in size from a few millimetres to a few centimetres. Skin tags are generally flesh-coloured or slightly darker and often hang from a stalk-like structure.
Skin tags are very common and can occur in anyone at any age, although they tend to be more common in older individuals. They are most commonly found in areas where the skin rubs against itself, such as on the neck, armpits, eyelids, groin, and under the breasts. However, skin tags can also appear in other areas of the body.
While skin tags are harmless, they can be bothersome and affect a person’s self-esteem. Many people choose to remove skin tags for cosmetic reasons. The removal of skin tags is a simple, safe, and painless procedure that can be performed effectively by our experienced practitioners at Rejuvenation Rooms.
Cheeks are an important part of a person’s face, and play a key role in providing support to upper, mid and lower facial tissue, and also in balancing other facial features. With this in mind it is understandable that loss of volume in the cheeks can have a huge impact on the rest of the face.
When cheeks lose volume, it is usually due to a depletion in the subcutaneous fatty tissue, which provides underlying support to the mid face, along with a deterioration in skin integrity as collagen levels gradually deplete.
Collagen is the protein responsible for keeping our skin firm and plump, so as this naturally decreases, skin loses its elasticity and starts to sag, shifting everything downwards.This in turn contributes to a flat sunken appearance to the mid face and heaviness in the jowl area, often noted with clients feeling that they look unhappy or tired.
Sunspots, also known as solar lentigines or liver spots, are hyper-pigmented areas of the skin that result from long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. These lesions are characterised by an accumulation of melanin in the epidermis, leading to flat, brown or black discolouration, typically found on sun-exposed areas such as the face, hands, and arms.
While sunspots are benign and do not pose a health risk, many individuals seek to remove them for cosmetic purposes. Various treatments such as chemical peels and cryotherapy can be effective in reducing the appearance of sunspots. Additionally, preventive measures such as using broad-spectrum sunscreen and limiting sun exposure can minimise the development of these lesions.
Teeth grinding and jaw clenching, also known as Bruxism, is often related to stress and anxiety, with sufferers being usually unaware they are doing it. In the majority of people, it happens during sleep. For some, it does not cause any symptoms, however others can experience facial pain, headaches and damage to their teeth.
Chronic grinding of the teeth or jaw clenching can cause the masseter muscle to enlarge, causing a widening or a squaring of the jaw, which can sometimes cause female sufferers to feel that it masculinises their face.
At Rejuvenation Rooms we use Botulinum Toxin Type A to address this condition. When injected into targeted muscles, it relaxes them to provide relief from chronic clenching or grinding. This can also help soften the contours of the face when the jaw has become widened.